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Endometriosis is a benign disease that affects women during their reproductive lives.

It occurs when the endometrium, which is the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus, is found abnormally outside the uterine cavity and is implanted in other anatomical areas.

The endometrium is made up of abundant glands, as well as arterial and venous vessels. Its mission is to facilitate the implantation of the fertilized ovum and allow embryonic development in the first moments of gestation. In the event that pregnancy does not occur, the endometrium is expelled outside the uterus in the form of monthly menstrual bleeding.

With this disease, the woman suffers menstrual changes in those places where the endometrium is inserted, producing cyclical bleeding in areas with no possibility of exit to the outside. That is why the chronic accumulation of blood is a common occurrence in endometriosis, which causes pain, mainly menstrual.

The places where the endometrium can be inserted outside the uterus are the following, in order of frequency:

  • The ovaries.

  • The fallopian tubes.

  • The uterine muscle and the ligaments that support it.

  • The intestine.

  • The recto-vaginal partition.

  • The urinary system, bladder, ureter and even the kidneys.

Endometriosis Vigo, Galicia, ourense_edited.jpg

It is not uncommon for one or more of these organs to be affected at the same time.

Exceptionally, endometriosis can appear in areas far away from the internal genital tract, such as the lungs, brain, abdominal surgical scars, etc., causing extremely serious situations for patients, especially during menstrual periods.



  • Dysmenorrhea or menstrual pain. This is secondary dysmenorrhea, which appears later than the first months of the menstrual cycles, increases with time and is accompanied by other typical symptoms of endometriosis. This pain is usually due to the formation of prostaglandins, which cause strong uterine contractions.

  • Dyspareunia or pain with sexual intercourse. Vaginal penetration can put pressure on any area affected by endometriosis: ovaries, vaginal roof and uterosacral ligaments.

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding. Many women with endometriosis do not present menstrual disorders or losses between periods, but the endometrial cycle can be altered and generate small extemporaneous losses.

  • reproductive problems. In some women, sterility or infertility are the reason for consultation that allows the diagnosis of endometriosis.

Endometriosis can cause infertility by:

  • Inflammation in the abdomen that prevents the union of the egg and sperm.

  • Pelvic adhesions that prevent the normal movement of the tubes and even obstruct them.

  • Endometriosis in the ovaries that prevents normal ovulation and production of sex hormones.

  • Secretion of unusual substances in the abdomen that hinder the normal fertility process.

  • Women with endometriosis have a higher risk of miscarriage, which decreases once the disease is corrected.

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