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Menstruation, or period, is the bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's menstrual cycles. Every month, the body prepares to accommodate a possible pregnancy, but if this does not happen, the uterus sheds the lining and causes the menstrual cycle.

hemorragias ginecológicas Vigo


The endometrium is the layer that covers the inside of the uterus and whose function is to receive the fertilized egg when pregnancy occurs. It has a great capacity to respond to hormonal stimuli that regulate the menstrual cycle, this is how it grows or proliferates with estrogen and matures with progesterone.


 is considered normal menstruation, one in which uterine bleeding lasts between 25 and 35 days and the duration is between 2 and 7 days and the amount of normal blood.

Abnormal uterine bleeding occurs when the frequency or amount of uterine bleeding is different from that previously stated or if the uterine bleeding occurs without being related to the cycle.

Causes that produce them

In many cases it is due to structural anomalies. Among them are benign lesions, such as endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids or myomas, and adenomyosis.


It may also be due to endometrial cancer, more common in older women.

Sometimes it is caused by lesions of the cervix or vagina, whether benign or cancerous, chronic infections of the endometrium (endometritis) or the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs).

Other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding, not directly related to structural abnormalities, may include taking medications that affect estrogen and progesterone production and chronic medical conditions, such as la diabetes o diseases of the liver, kidney, thyroid gland or adrenal glands.

Also physical or emotional stress can induce the appearance of abnormal uterine bleeding.



The main symptoms that cause uterine bleeding are:

  • Bleeding between periods 

  • Bleeding after sexual intercourse.

  • Bleeding that is heavier or over a longer period of time than normal.

  • Bleeding after la menopause.

  • Absence of periods for 3 to 6 months (amenorrhea). 


To prevent this type of conditions, it is essential to have gynecological check-ups at least once a year, thus avoiding problems that result in these bleedings, such as cancer, cysts, or anovulatory cycles._cc781905-5cde-3194-bb3b- 136bad5cf58d_

If a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding, she should see her gynecologist. In most cases you will be able to fix your problem. No woman should accept abnormal bleeding as something without a solution. Your life will change enormously by solving or minimizing them.

 Among the diagnostic procedures performed to determine the cause of such bleeding are physical and ultrasound examination or endometrial biopsy. The latter consists of taking a sample from the inside of the uterus to rule out the presence of alterations.

It is possible that during pregnancy, especially the first months, vaginal bleeding also occurs, but it does not have to be serious. In any case, it is recommended that the patient go to the doctor for a review. 

Treatment of structural abnormalities

Structural anomalies of the uterus or endometrium have a specific treatment, mainly surgical. Generally  surgery is performed using hysteroscopy,  for the removal of fibroids, polyps or Asherman's syndrome.  These procedures are called myomectomy or hysteroscopic polypectomy.

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